The mixer remembers

Thanks to Sascha Wildner porting from FreeBSD, mixer(8) now remembers state.  This is something I’ve wanted for a long time.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     0 Comments

Don’t forget moused

For whatever reason, I’ve seen several people in the last week or so have mouse problems on install, and they were often solved by running moused.  So, there’s your little reminder.

Glasgow OpenBSD presentation

Normally I’d hold this off until the In Other BSDs item on Saturday, but by then it will be too late: There’s a “Building redundant and transparent firewalls with OpenBSD” presentation happening at the Scottish Linux User’s Group meeting, Thursday night in Glasgow, Scotland.

Posted by     Categories: Conventions, Goings-on, OpenBSD     0 Comments

Book review: FreeBSD Essentials: Storage Mastery

Normally if I talk about a filesystem here, I talk about Hammer, which is not a surprise.  However, I often read and review Michael W. Lucas’s BSD-oriented books, and he has written FreeBSD Mastery: Storage Essentials.  I’m reviewing it here because it’s obviously BSD-related, and some portions are directly relevant for other BSDs.

Disk setup and layout isn’t something that normally consumes much attention past the initial install – until something goes wrong, or until a system needs a new configuration.    Installers tend to hide that initial layout, anyway.

Vendors take advantage of this.  Much of the specialized storage vendors out there are selling you a computer with disks in it – something you can build yourself.  You don’t (or at least I hope you don’t) buy a firewall when you can do the same with pf or ipfw; the same goes for disk management.

There’s plenty of coverage of GEOM, GELI, GDBE, and the other technologies specific to FreeBSD.  I for one did not know how GEOM worked, with its consumer/producer model – and I imagine it’s complex to dive into when you’ve got a broken machine next to you.  If you are administering FreeBSD systems, especially ones that deal with dedicated storage, you will find this useful.  He doesn’t go into ZFS, but he does hint at a book on it later…

If you’re not a FreeBSD user, there’s also material that’s common to any BSD – an explanation of disk architecture, of UFS, RAID, and SMART.  Knowing what SMART is and does is essential, in my opinion.  You may be able to cobble this material together from other sources online, but it’s packaged nicely here, with Lucas’s easy writing style.

It’s a self-published book, and as such the download nets you three different formats.  It’s currently $10 and DRM-free, directly from the author.  You can also order physical versions, if you like paper.

Posted by     Categories: Books, BSD, FreeBSD     4 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2015/01/18

Not sure how I ended up with so many interesting conference links.  There’s some substantial reading here too, so clear your schedule.

Posted by     Categories: Conventions, Lazy Reading     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2015/01/17

Lots of material this week.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, PC-BSD, pfSense, pkgsrc     0 Comments

Google Compute Engine and DragonFly?

Can someone with experience on Google Compute Engine try out running DragonFly on it?  There’s FreeBSD instructions, so it might work.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Please test     1 Comment

SCTP removed

DragonFly no longer has SCTP.  Nobody minds, I think – I had to look up what it is.

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     1 Comment

Which wireless cards for DragonFly?

The short answer is ath(4) and iwn(4), via this post.  There’s an update coming for the wireless infrastructure in DragonFly; Matthew Dillon and Adrian Chadd (on the FreeBSD side) are working together for improvements.

While I’m mentioning recommendations, the Silicon Image 3132 chipset is apparently excellent for eSATA drives on DragonFly.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly, FreeBSD     1 Comment

BSDNow 072: Common *Sense Approach

As promised last week, the BSDNow show has an interview with Jos Schellevis of OPNSense, along with the normal array of stories and links.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Periodicals, pf, pfSense     0 Comments

sshlockout in DragonFly

Matthew Dillon’s added a sshlockout utility, to temporarily block SSH traffic from repeated brute force SSH login attempts.  It’s been mentioned before, but it’s in the system now.  It’s been refashioned to work with pf.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Someday you will need this     0 Comments

Major DragonFly sound update

Francois Tigeot has performed a major upgrade of DragonFly’s sound system.  If you had sound problems or unsupported hardware before, this may fix them.  It will require a full buildworld+buildkernel.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     1 Comment

More DragonFly/Chromebook tricks

Romick posted some more tips on setting up various special keys on an Acer c720 Chromebook, running DragonFly of course, and Matthew Dillon also has backlight key configuration.   I wish I had a spare $200 right now for one of these.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     3 Comments

BSDNow 071: System Disaster

I managed to miss this last week because of issues with my RSS feeds, but the 71st episode of BSDNow is/has been up.  It’s “systemd isaster”, cause the interview is with Ian Sutton talking about BSD replacements for systemd dependencies.  There’s a number of at-least-slightly DragonFly-related things in there, including OPNSense, pkgng, and Hammer mentions.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, DragonFly, Periodicals, pf, pfSense     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2015/01/11

Historical links are the accidental theme this week.

Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2015/01/10

I got this done early, for once.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Conventions, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD     1 Comment

4.0.2 images up

I’m breaking my normal weekend posting schedule to note that DragonFly 4.0.2 images are now linked on the main site and on mirrors now/soon.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     0 Comments

DragonFly 4.0.2 released

DragonFly 4.0.2 has been tagged.  I’m building the release images now.  If you’re already running 4.0.1 it’ll be easy enough to upgrade to; you will want to catch up to this commit fixing a quiet memory issue.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     1 Comment

Multiple disk speedup

The CAM layer in DragonFly has had its big lock removed/been marked MPSAFE, so you will notice a performance increase when using multiple disks.  (assuming you aren’t throughput-limited, of course.)

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     3 Comments

DragonFly on a VPS

That’s Virtual Private Server, if you don’t know the term.  I mentioned VPSs and BSD before in a In Other BSDs article, but “Ed” found an article specifically about installing DragonFly on Vultr.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, DragonFly     6 Comments

ZFS and Hammer conversation

There’s a FreeBSD Forums thread about ZFS and Hammer, as several people have pointed out to me.  It’s interesting to see, but there isn’t a lot of quantitative discussion.  (It’s a forum post, not a white paper, though.)

Posted by     Categories: BSD, DragonFly, FreeBSD, Hammer     4 Comments

Library building with DragonFly

Do you remember the BSDNow story a while ago about a Tanzanian community effort using FreeBSD to build a library?  They’re looking at DragonFly, too, because of the low resource requirements.  From that discussion: a hardware reason for an ‘indefinite wait buffer’ error, and a note on how to most efficiently download packages for multiple machines.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DPorts, DragonFly     0 Comments

V4-mapped addresses out, TCP MTU discovery in

Sepherosa Ziehau has posted a note that V4-mapped addressing is no longer supported in DragonFly.  You will need to do a full buildworld/buildkernel if you are running master.  Also, TCP MTU path discovery is on by default.  Also also, he’s added a SOL_SOCKET/SO_CPUINT socket option for use to reduce load in heavy network activity.  As usual, I don’t quite comprehend.

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly, Heads Up!     0 Comments

Backlights, improvements for your i915

You can now control your backlight settings through sysctl and enjoy greater video support/stability – as long as you are using a i915 video chipset on DragonFly.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     9 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2015/01/04

My end of year vacation is over tomorrow, darnit.


Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading     1 Comment

In Other BSDs for 2015/01/03

Remembered to do this all at the last minute, after I got the new server up.


Posted by     Categories: BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, pf, pkgsrc     0 Comments

Site back to normal

I’m moved over to new hardware for the Digest.  Tell me if you see issues, please.

Posted by     Categories: About This Site     0 Comments

BSDNow 070: Daemons in the North

The BSDNow people aren’t slowing down for the holidays, as there’s another episode this week.  The interview is with Dan Langille, about the 2015 BSDCan conference.  He’s also the person behind, which served as partial inspiration for the Digest.  There’s also more video presentation links, news items, and so on.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Conventions, Periodicals     0 Comments

Site downtime will be going down for a brief period in the next 24 hours, for a hardware upgrade.

Posted by     Categories: About This Site     0 Comments

Slider, for Hammer

John Marino has created something very useful: a graphical tool for Hammer file history.  It’s called ‘Slider’, and it uses curses to work in a terminal.  It shows historic versions of files and can restore those old versions as needed.  This was already possible in Hammer, of course, but it required a sequence of commands that were not straight-forward.  I’ve been slow enough posting it that version 2.0 is already out, offering a way to see files that no longer exist, but are still in history.  (i.e. deleted some time ago)  ‘Time Machine’ sounds like the best name, but that seems to be taken.

Book Review: The Book of PF, 3rd edition

I’m going to dive right in with an anecdote: As is normal for anyone in systems administration, I’m busy at work.  I’ve been short an employee for some time, and I brought in a managed service provider to do some work.  This included a revamping of the network equipment and layout, as it has been growing organically rather than in a planned fashion.

I received the formal assessment from the provider a few weeks ago, and it mentioned that we were using a non ICSA-certified firewall: pf, in the form of pfSense.  This was accompanied by some rather drastic warnings about how open source was targeted by hackers! and implied that ICSA certification was a mark of quality rather than a purchasable certification.  All bogus, of course.

The reason I’m starting this review with this little story is to note that while open source has become well-accepted for system and application software, there’s still a lot of people that expect commercial hardware to be exclusively handling data once it leaves the server.  That’s been valid for a long time, but software like pf represents a realistic option, or even an improvement, over many commercial and proprietary options.  Since pf exists in one form or another on all the BSDs, it’s a tool you should be at least somewhat familiar with.

Peter N. M. Hansteen has written about pf first online, and then in printed form, for some time.  The Book of PF is in its third edition, and that’s what I have to read.  (Disclosure: No Starch Press gave me the book free, without requirements)

The book is excellent, and easier to read than I expected for a book about network processing.  It can be read in linear form, as it takes the reader from simple to more complex network layouts.  It works as a reference book, too, as it focuses on different tools around pf and what they are used for.

It covers the different pf version in OpenBSD, NetBSD, and FreeBSD, and DragonFly gets at least a partial mention in some portions of the book.  For example, OpenBSD recently removed ALTQ, but the other BSDs still use it.  With- and without-ALTQ scenarios are covered every place it applies.  You’re going to get the most mileage out of an OpenBSD setup with it, though.

The parts where the book shines are the later chapters; the descriptions of greylisting and spamd, the traffic shaping notes, and the information on monitoring pf will be useful for most anyone.  It’s quite readable; similar in tone to Peter’s blog.  If you enjoy his indepth online articles, the book will be a pleasant read.

It’s available now from Amazon and directly from No Starch Press.  It’s linked in the book slider currently running on the right side of this site, too.

Posted by     Categories: Books, OpenBSD, pf     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/12/28

Last of the year!

Your unrelated link of the week: UpDog, a revolutionary communications platform.  (via)


Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/12/27

The list is shorter this week; I blame the Christmas holiday.


Posted by     Categories: BSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD     3 Comments

BSDNow 069: Under the Ports Tree

BSDNow isn’t slowing down for Christmas, cause there’s a new episode up.  There’s two interviews this time – Erwin Lansing, about BSD in Europe, and Cristina Vintila, about BSD conferences.  The rest of the episode is a bunch of “How did you get into BSD?” stories from viewers, both in text (i.e. read out from email) and the occasional video answer.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Conventions, Periodicals     0 Comments

A tip for Hammer disks and history

One way to keep file history on an very active Hammer disk from eating up all the space: more snapshots.  This may seem counterproductive, but disk pruning eliminates historical data between snapshots, so you can keep older data at the cost of some temporal accuracy.

How, where, and why DragonFly

As part of another thread, Steve Petrie posted an in-depth description of how and where and why he’s using DragonFly.  Worth looking at either for workflow tips or for just seeing the use case.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     0 Comments

BSDTalk 249: Scott Long of Netflix

BSDTalk 249 is an 11 minute interview with Scott Long, who is involved with Netflix’s FreeBSD-based local caching appliances.  This conversation is from MeetBSD 2014, though I heard Scott talk about the same subject at the last NYCBSDCon – it’s an astounding amount of data flowing through those machines.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Periodicals     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/12/21

I am slightly confused about which day it is.

Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/12/20

I sort of lost a day this week because of an accidental 20-hour workday, but I still have the links:

Note: corrected VPS hosting link.

Posted by     Categories: Books, DragonFly, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, PC-BSD, pkgsrc     2 Comments

BSDNow 068: Just the Essentials

BSDNow 068 has a large number video links to various BSD conference videos, a bunch of other article links,, and an interview of Michael W. Lucas about his new FreeBSD Mastery: Storage Essentials book.

Posted by     Categories: Books, BSD, Conventions, FreeBSD, Periodicals     0 Comments

Swapcache and improving performance

From a question about mixing in a SSD and a very slow disk: swapcache can make things better, though I suggest other crazy arrangements.

dports without X11

If you really, really want to make sure you aren’t pulling in any parts of X when installing dports, and you’re building from source, there’s a few options you can set to keep X11 off your system.  You can even go farther.

IPMI in DragonFly

I had to type it that way because it rhymes.  Sascha Wildner has committed an IPMI driver port, tested/watchdogged by Markus Pfeiffer.  What’s it do?  It’s a machine management standard.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/12/14

Minimal link text this week.  It just happened that way.


Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading, roguelike, UNIXish     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/12/13

Get ready for some reading.

Installworld, no matter what

It’s possible, if you are several releases (years) behind, to end up with a DragonFly system that can’t compile and install the current release, due to incremental changes over time.  It’s rare, but it could happen now between, say, version 3.4 and 4.0.  The usual solution would be to incrementally upgrade in order, which is a lot of building and updating.  The alternative is the new installworld-force option from Matthew Dillon that forces a new set of binaries into place.  Use as a last resort.

Virtual I/O performance

If you want to help I/O performance when DragonFly is virtualized, here’s a short checklist of what to work on.  I haven’t noticed any problems – but I’m not taxing any of my VMs that heavily.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     0 Comments

BSDNow 067: Must Be Rigged

BSDNow’s episode this week focuses on the just-released Bitrig 1.0, and has an interview with Patrick Wildt of that project.  There’s also coverage of other topics, including the new poudriere release – that’s the tool that bulk builds packages for DragonFly and FreeBSD, though I don’t know if it’s unified across both operating systems yet.

Posted by     Categories: Bitrig, BSD, DPorts, Periodicals     0 Comments

IPFW2 branch for testing

bycn82’s rewrite of IPFW2 is available as a git branch to try out; he’s posted the link.  Please try, especially if you are still working with the original ipfw.

(note: remember, ‘ipfw’ in DragonFly is what was called ‘ipfw2’ years and years ago because it was a replacement of the original ‘ipfw’ in FreeBSD.  It was called ipfw2 but referenced as ipfw so that the same commands worked.  Technically, this branch bycn82 is working on would be ipfw3, but he keeps referring to it as ipfw2.  Confused?  Good.)

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Please test     4 Comments


If you’re using one of those Acer C720 or C720p Chromebooks with DragonFly, remember to set:


To automatically enter the right power-saving states on the CPU. You used to have to do it manually, and now you don’t.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     1 Comment

Support for a device nobody has

Sascha Wilder ported over the urio(4) driver to DragonFly.  It’s for the USB-based Rio mp3 players.  Does anyone have one of these and is running DragonFly?  That would be a startling coincidence.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     1 Comment

Lazy Reading for 2014/12/07

Today is my birthday, so I have a gift for you: a lot of reading!

Your unrelated link of the week: Cyriak’s Adult Swim 2014 compilation.

Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/12/06

I have been building up quite the variety this week.

The Varialus page

This page, Varialus et Anisoptera, set up by… I’m not sure of the real name but it’s ‘varialus’ on IRC – has a detailed description of the DragonFly install process and installation of MATE, plus extra notes.  I always find these sorts of cheatsheets entertaining.

BSDNow 066: Conference Connoisseur

The 66th BSDNow episode has an interview with Paul Schenkeveld about BSD conferences, and of course the usual variety of news, including something about a BSD-powered library in Africa; something that is entirely out of the blue to me.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Conventions, Periodicals     0 Comments

Fred, in color

The DragonFly boot menu has been cleaned up a bit, and Fred, the dragonfly drawn on DragonFly, is now in better color.  In fact, there’s even an option to turn him blue.

Update: I wanted to see what this looked like, and I realized screenshots might help everyone else.



Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     2 Comments

A pile of DragonFly commits

In an effort to reduce my backlog of DragonFly things to post about, here’s quick notes:

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     0 Comments

svc(8), service manager for DragonFly

I’m running behind so this is a bit old, but: Matthew Dillon commited svc(8), a service manager program.  Take a look at its man page to see the potential uses.

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     4 Comments

A rcrun(8) conversation

Robin Hahling wants feedback on where to go in DragonFly with rcrun(8), service(8), and similar commands.  Follow the thread to see the various opinions.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/11/30

I’m going with links to some old-school crazy-hard projects this week.  No simple hacks, these.

Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading, UNIXish     0 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/11/29

Despite the US holiday, here’s a pile of BSD material.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, pkgsrc     0 Comments

LDAP and DragonFly

Predrag Punosevac posted his writeup of using LDAP and DragonFly, which I’m noting here for the next person that needs LDAP authentication.

BSDNow 065: 8,000,000 Mogofoo-ops

This week’s BSDNow episode, 8,000,000 Mogofoo-ops, includes an interview with Brendan Gregg of Netflix, along with more recent convention video links. It also mentions GNOME3 working on FreeBSD – it’s working on DragonFly too.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, DPorts, Periodicals     0 Comments

XHCI and installing DragonFly

With a recent commit from Sascha Wildner, DragonFly now loads XHCI (meaning USB3) by default.  If you had previously tried to install DragonFly via USB stick, and it inexplicably refused to mou t the installer drive…  It may work much better now.

Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     2 Comments

Release followups

There’s an extended article about the DragonFly 4.0 release on  You need to be able to read French to enjoy it fully, or perhaps through translation, but it goes into some good depth.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     0 Comments

DragonFly 4.0 released!

The 4.0 release of DragonFly is out!  Quoting from the release page:

Version 4 of DragonFly brings Haswell graphics support, 3D acceleration, and improved performance in extremely high-traffic networks. DragonFly now supports up to 256 CPUs, Haswell graphics (i915), concurrent pf operation, and a variety of other devices.

The more eagle-eyed downloader will notice it’s version 4.0.1, not 4.0.0.  That’s because nobody trusts .0 releases I tagged 4.0.0 just before a few useful commits went in, and it’s better to retag to make sure everyone got them.  See also my message to kernel@/users@

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Heads Up!     7 Comments

Books books books

I’ve placed an image slider over on the right side of the website; it’s all BSD-related books.  Each image is linked to a page about the book where you can buy it.  It’s not paid advertising, or perhaps advertising at all; there’s no in-kind benefit.  It’s specifically books I think people would find interesting to read, and we’d all benefit by the expansion of the BSD ‘ecosystem’.

The most recent edition added is Michael W. Lucas’s FreeBSD Mastery: Storage Essentials, which is out in ebook form today, and printed form soon.

Posted by     Categories: Books, BSD     1 Comment

Several DragonFly updates

I’m working on the 4.0 release, but in the meantime, I wanted to point at a slew of updates from Sascha Wildner: ACPICA 20141107, pciconf(8), axge(4), and the kernel part of the netgraph7 Bluetooth stack.


Posted by     Categories: Committed Code, DragonFly     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/11/23

Lots to read this week.

Your unrelated link of the week: Snowpocalypse 2014.  I grew up there and now live not too far away.  That’s really not that much snow for the area; it’s just that it fell so quickly.

In Other BSDs for 2014/11/22

I actually got this started early, for once, instead of completing in a panic on Friday night.

Posted by     Categories: Books, BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, PC-BSD     0 Comments

BSDNow 064: Rump Kernels Revisited

BSDNow 064 (somehow, 64 seems a nicer milestone than 50) links to a huge pile of EuroBSDCon 2014 videos, including 2 DragonFly presentations.  There’s also an interview with Justin Cormack, who must be cool; I can tell from his name.  There’s a lot more material just written on the page after the video, so I’ll point you at the actual content instead of repeating.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Conventions, Periodicals     0 Comments

BSDTalk 248: Matthew Dillon and DragonFly

I hadn’t caught this yet cause I am working extra hours, but Matthias did: Matthew Dillon talks about DragonFly and the 4.0 release for a good 43 minutes on BSDTalk.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, DragonFly, Periodicals     2 Comments

IPFW…3? work

A fellow whom I’ve only seen named as Bill is working on what he calls ipfw2, though technically what’s already in DragonFly is ipfw2, since it’s the second version of ipfw.  Either way, he has a project page up describing what he’s done so far, and what he plans.

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on     4 Comments

Old USB out, new USB in

Sascha Wildner has removed the old USB system from DragonFly; you’re getting USB4BSD no matter what now, after the 4.0 release.  While we’re at it, xhci is now automatically loaded in the installer, so installer USB drives attached to USB3 ports will work.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     0 Comments

For USB debugging

Markus Pfeiffer has made usb_pf work on DragonFly, which means it’s possible to dump USB traffic and filter it, similar to tcpdump.  This can be handy when debugging a USB device, and that’s like 90% of all devices anyway.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     0 Comments

Lazy Reading for 2014/11/16

Snow snow snow!

Unrelated link of the week: Lenny Kravitz – Fly Away (lyrics)  Watch to the end.  “just like a dragonfly”  (via)

Posted by     Categories: Lazy Reading, roguelike, UNIXish     3 Comments

In Other BSDs for 2014/11/15

Totally last minute.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, PC-BSD, pkgsrc     0 Comments

DragonFly 4.0.0RC3 images

If you look at your local DragonFly mirror, you’ll see ISO and IMG versions of DragonFly 4.0.0RC3.  Please run, break, and report.

(Check the iso-images directory.)

Posted by     Categories: DragonFly, Goings-on, Please test     0 Comments

A DRM speedup

Imre Vadaz’s recent change to dev/drm, adding kqueue support, has (from anecdotal reports in IRC) made video performance much better.  It’s committed to DragonFly 4.0, so it’ll be in the next release.

Posted by     Categories: Device support, DragonFly     0 Comments

BSDNow 063: A man’s man(1)

BSDNow 063 has the normal news articles and links, and an interview of Kristaps Džonsons, one of the people working on mandoc.  There’s also a tutorial on bandwidth throttling with pf.

Posted by     Categories: BSD, Periodicals, pf     0 Comments